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Sapphire belongs to the corundum gemstone family as well as ruby.
Corundum of gemstone quality of all colors except red are called sapphire, only red varieties are called rubies, all other colors, including pink, green, orange, purple and white sapphire, are referred to as fancy Sapphires.
The name derives from the Greek word blue.
The Moh’s hardness is 9, the hardest mineral after diamond.
The most desired color is a pure cornflower-blue.
Sapphires are commonly heated to enhance the color , that might change the stones to a brighter blue permanent color.
Today important sapphire deposits are in Burma (Myanmar),Sri Lanka,Thailand ,Tansania , Madagascar and Australia. Sapphires have been found in Sri Lanka (Ratnapura) since antiquity.
The most desired sapphire used to come from Kashmir, its fascinating color of deep cornflower-blue ,often with a silky sheen is also named kashmir-color.
Large sapphires are rare .The American Museum of Natural History (New York) owns the “Star of India”, perhaps the largest cut star sapphire of 536 carats .Two famous sapphires named ST.Edward’s and Stuart Sapphire, are part of the English Crown Jewels. The Rockefeller Sapphire a faceted intensive blue rectangular of 62,02 carats was sold first by Sotheby’s and lately by Christies.
Sapphire is the birthstone of April.

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