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Emerald is the green and most precious variety of the Beryl gemstone family , with a Mohs’ hardness 7,5 – 8.
The name emerald derives from Greek Smaragdos . It means green stone .
Its green is incomparable and is therefore called “emerald green”.
Only the finest specimens are transparent.Often the emerald is clouded by inclusions.These are not necessarily classified as faults,but are evidence of the genuineness .The expert refers to these inclusions as jardin (French-garden).All emeralds are sensitive to pressure , also care must be taken in heating them.
Significant deposits of the finest quality are in Colombia. Especially the Muzo mine northwest of Bogota’, producing fine quality stones of a deep green color.First mined by native tribes,the mine was rediscovered in the 17th century.Another important Colombian deposit is the Chivor Mine in the northeast of Bogota’,also mined by Native Americans.During recent decades further emerald deposits, have been found in Colombia.Other significant deposits are found in Brazil and Africa, mainly Zambia.
Famous Emeralds ,the most beautiful specimens of several hundred carats are kept by the British Museum of Natural History in London,by the AmericanMuseum of Natural History in New York, in the treasury of Russia, in the state treasury of Iran some as the seven Emeralds Tiara and in the Treasury room in Topkapi Palace, Istanbul,Turkey.In the Viennese treasury is a vase , 12 cm high and weighing 2205 ct ,cut from a single emerald crystal.The collection of the Bank of Bogota’ includes five valuable emerald crystals with weights of between 220 and 1796 carats.
Because emerald is so sensitive to knocks, a step cut was developed,the four corners being truncated by facets, so called emerald cut.Emeralds are mainly oiled at the country of origin in order to hide very fine hairline fractures.
Birthstone of may

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